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Digestive system
Digestive system


Digestive system organs
Digestive system organs


Short bowel syndrome

Definition:

Short bowel syndrome is a condition that occurs when part of the small intestine is missing or has been removed during surgery. Nutrients are not properly absorbed into the body (malabsorption ) as a result.



Alternative Names:

Small intestine insufficiency



Causes:

When part of the small intestine is missing, there may not be enough surface area in the bowel to absorb enough nutrients from food. The this can happen when half or more of the bowel is removed during surgery or sections are missing due to a birth defect (congenital defect),

Risk factors include diseases of the small intestine that may require surgery, such as Crohn's disease . In infants, necrotizing enterocolitis is a common cause.



Symptoms:

Exams and Tests:
  • Blood chemistry tests (such as albumin level )
  • Complete blood count (CBC )
  • Fecal fat test
  • Small intestine x-ray
  • Vitamin levels in the blood


Treatment:

Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms. Treatments may include:

  • A high-calorie diet that supplies key vitamins and minerals, as well as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
  • Injections of some vitamins and minerals
  • Vitamin B12 , folic acid and increased iron in the diet to treat anemia
  • Medicines to slow down the normal movement of the intestine so food remains in the intestine longer
  • Injections of special growth factors
  • Tube feeding through a vein (parenteral nutrition) if normal feeding is not supplying enough nutrients
  • Small bowel transplantation in some cases


Outlook (Prognosis):

The condition may improve over time if it is due to surgery. Nutrient absorption may slowly get better.



Possible Complications:
  • Bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine
  • Nervous system problems caused by a lack of vitamin B12
  • Too much acid in the blood (metabolic acidosis due to diarrhea)
  • Gallstones
  • Kidney stones
  • Malnutrition
  • Weakened bones (osteomalacia)
  • Weight loss


When to Contact a Medical Professional:

Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of short bowel syndrome, especially after you have had bowel surgery.



References:

Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142.




Review Date: 5/15/2014
Reviewed By: Jenifer K. Lehrer, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Frankford-Torresdale Hospital, Aria Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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Atlantic Medical Group
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Morristown Medical Center

100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

Overlook Medical Center

99 Beauvoir Avenue
Summit, NJ 07901
908-522-2000

Newton Medical Center

175 High Street
Newton, NJ 07860
973-383-2121

Chilton Medical Center

97 West Parkway
Pompton Plains, NJ 07444
973-831-5000

Goryeb Children's Hospital

100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

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Atlantic Medical Group

More than 600 community-based health care providers.
1-800-247-9580

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