Chilton Medical Center - ATLANTIC HEALTH SYSTEM
Decrease (-) Restore Default Increase (+)  font size
PrintEmail
Search Health Information   

Female reproductive anatomy
Female reproductive anatomy


Ovarian cysts
Ovarian cysts


Uterus
Uterus


Uterine anatomy
Uterine anatomy


Ovarian cysts

Definition:

An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid that forms on or inside an ovary.

This article is about cysts that form during your monthly menstrual cycle, called functional cysts. Functional cysts are not the same as cysts caused by cancer or other diseases.



Alternative Names:

Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts; Corpus luteum cysts; Follicular cysts



Causes:

Each month during your menstrual cycle, a follicle grows on your ovary. The follicle is where an egg is developing. Most months, an egg is released from this follicle, called ovulation. If the follicle fails to break open and release an egg, the fluid stays in the follicle and forms a cyst . This is called a follicular cyst.

Another type of cyst occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. This is called a corpus luteum cyst. This type of cyst often contains a small amount of blood.

Ovarian cysts are more common in the childbearing years between puberty and menopause . The condition is less common after menopause.

Taking fertility drugs can cause a condition in which multiple large cysts are formed on the ovaries. This is called ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome . The cysts most often go away after a woman's period, or after a pregnancy.

Functional ovarian cysts are not the same as ovarian tumors, or cysts due to hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome .



Symptoms:

Ovarian cysts often cause no symptoms.

An ovarian cyst is more likely to cause pain if it:

  • Becomes large
  • Bleeds
  • Breaks open
  • Interferes with the blood supply to the ovary
  • Is bumped during sexual intercourse
  • Is twisted or causes twisting (torsion) of the Fallopian tube

Symptoms of ovarian cysts can also include:

  • Bloating or swelling in the abdomen
  • Pain during bowel movements
  • Pain in the pelvis shortly before or after beginning a menstrual period
  • Pain with intercourse or pelvic pain during movement
  • Pelvic pain -- constant, dull aching
  • Sudden and severe pelvic pain, often with nausea and vomiting, may be a sign of torsion or twisting of the ovary on its blood supply, or rupture of a cyst with internal bleeding

Changes in menstrual periods are not common with follicular cysts, and are more common with corpus luteum cysts. Spotting or bleeding may occur with some cysts.



Exams and Tests:

Your doctor or nurse may discover a cyst during a pelvic exam, or when you have an ultrasound test for another reason.

Ultrasound may be done to diagnose a cyst. Your doctor or nurse may want to check you again in 6 - 8 weeks to make sure it is gone.

Other imaging tests that may be done when needed include:

The following blood tests may be done:



Treatment:

Functional ovarian cysts often do not need treatment. They often go away on their own within 8 - 12 weeks.

If you have frequent cysts, your doctor or nurse may prescribe birth control pills (oral contraceptives). These medicines may reduce the risk of new ovarian cysts. Birth control pills do not decrease the size of current cysts.

Surgery to remove the cyst or ovary may be needed to make sure that it is not ovarian cancer. Surgery is more likely to be needed for:

  • Complex ovarian cysts that do not go away
  • Cysts that are causing symptoms and do not go away
  • Simple ovarian cysts that are larger than 10 centimeters
  • Women who are near menopause or past menopause

Types of surgery for ovarian cysts include:

You may need other treatments if you have polycystic ovary syndrome or another disorder that can cause cysts.



Outlook (Prognosis):

Cysts in women who are still having periods are more likely to go away. A complex cyst in a woman who is past menopause has a higher risk of being cancer. Cancer is very unlikely with a simple cyst.



Possible Complications:

Complications have to do with the condition causing the cysts. Complications can occur with cysts that:

  • Bleed
  • Break open
  • Show signs of changes that could be cancer
  • Twist


When to Contact a Medical Professional:

Call your health care provider if:

  • You have symptoms of an ovarian cyst
  • You have severe pain
  • You have bleeding that is not normal for you

Also call your health care provider if you have had following on most days for at least 2 weeks:

  • Getting full quickly when eating
  • Losing your appetite
  • Losing weight without trying


Prevention:

If you are not trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing.



References:

Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 17.

Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions. In: Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 18.




Review Date: 3/11/2014
Reviewed By: Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Bellevue, WA; Clinical Teaching Faculty, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
adam.com


Morristown Medical Center
100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

Overlook Medical Center
99 Beauvoir Avenue
Summit, NJ 07901
908-522-2000

Newton Medical Center
175 High Street
Newton, NJ 07860
973-383-2121

Chilton Medical Center
97 West Parkway
Pompton Plains, NJ 07444
973-831-5000

Goryeb Children's Hospital
100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

Atlantic Medical Group
1-800-247-9580

Morristown Medical Center

100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

Overlook Medical Center

99 Beauvoir Avenue
Summit, NJ 07901
908-522-2000

Newton Medical Center

175 High Street
Newton, NJ 07860
973-383-2121

Chilton Medical Center

97 West Parkway
Pompton Plains, NJ 07444
973-831-5000

Goryeb Children's Hospital

100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

Affiliated Providers

Atlantic Medical Group

More than 600 community-based health care providers.
1-800-247-9580

© 2015 Chilton Medical Center, 97 West Parkway, Pompton Plains, New Jersey 1-973-831-5000