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Blood test
Blood test


Creatine phosphokinase test

Definition:

Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme in the body. It is found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of CPK in the blood.



Alternative Names:

CPK test



How the Test is Performed:

A blood sample is needed. This may be taken from a vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture .

This test may be repeated over 2 or 3 days if you are a patient in the hospital.



How to Prepare for the Test:

No special preparation is needed most of the time.

Tell your health care provider about any medicines you are taking. Drugs that can increase CPK measurements include amphotericin B, certain anesthetics, statins, fibrates, dexamethasone, alcohol, and cocaine.



How the Test will Feel:

You may feel slight pain when the needle is inserted to draw blood. Some people feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.



Why the Test is Performed:

When the total CPK level is very high, it most often means there has been injury or stress to muscle tissue, the heart, or the brain.

Muscle tissue injury is most likely. When a muscle is damaged, CPK leaks into the bloodstream. Finding which specific form of CPK is high helps determine which tissue has been damaged.

This test may be used to:

The pattern and timing of a rise or fall in CPK levels can be significant in making a diagnosis. This is particularly true if a heart attack is suspected.

In most cases other tests are used instead of or with this test to diagnose a heart attack.



Normal Results:

Total CPK normal values:

  • 10 to 120 micrograms per liter (mcg/L)

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.



What Abnormal Results Mean:

High CPK levels may be seen in people who have:

  • Brain injury or stroke
  • Convulsions
  • Delirium tremens
  • Dermatomyositis or polymyositis
  • Electric shock
  • Heart attack
  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
  • Lung tissue death (pulmonary infarction)
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Myopathy
  • Rhabdomyolysis

Other conditions that may give positive test results include:



Risks:

Risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling light-headed
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)


Considerations:

Other tests should be done to find the exact location of muscle damage.

Factors that may affect test results include cardiac catheterization , intramuscular injections, trauma to muscles, recent surgery, and heavy exercise.



References:

Anderson JL. ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and complications of myocardial infarction. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 73.

Chinnery PF. Muscle diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 429.

Ferri FF. Muscular Dystrophy. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2016:pp. 832-833.

Ferri FF. Rhabdomyolysis. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2016:pp. 1081-1083.

Nagaraju K, Lundberg IE. Inflammatory diseases of muscle and other myopathies. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr, et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: chap 85.




Review Date: 1/9/2015
Reviewed By: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Morristown Medical Center

100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

Overlook Medical Center

99 Beauvoir Avenue
Summit, NJ 07901
908-522-2000

Newton Medical Center

175 High Street
Newton, NJ 07860
973-383-2121

Chilton Medical Center

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Pompton Plains, NJ 07444
973-831-5000

Hackettstown Medical Center

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Hackettstown, NJ 07840
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Goryeb Children's Hospital

100 Madison Avenue
Morristown, NJ 07960
973-971-5000

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